The main objective in the Research Network Project “Mapping key challenges to sustainability transitions in agriculture and food production towards greater autonomy in Armenia and beyond” is to establish a dynamic network dedicated to map key areas where more knowledge is needed to facilitate promotion of sustainable solutions. The network will bring together Swedish experiences and knowledge of sustainable resource use and Armenian expertise on opportunities and challenges in agriculture and food production in a Southern Caucasus context, with its complexities in many different dimensions. Although Sweden and Armenia both need to address, for example, how to use digitalisation to make agriculture and food production more resource efficient, sustainable, and adapted to local soil and other local conditions, Armenia faces additional challenges. Arguably, a transformation from the Soviet era focused primarily on the military-industrial complex to a modern and sustainable market economy is a formidable societal challenge, made even more challenging by the high degree of dependence on imported natural gas and historical pollution from heavy industries. Such a transformation requires not only scientific knowledge, economic resources, and political will, but also equity and fairness to ensure that reforms are perceived as legitimate and just. This Research network aims to contribute to well-needed scientific knowledge and policy advice.